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30(CHF) Schweizer Franken(CHF) To Euro(EUR) Wechselkurs Heute - Wechselkurs und Währungsrechner Rechner. 30 Schweizer Franken waren 27,40 Euro am 25 August, , weil der CHF zu EUR Wechselkurs vor 1 Jahr war 1 CHF = 0, EUR. Komfortabler Umrechner zwischen der Währung Schweizer Franken und Euro. 32, elmsaholm.se 34, Wechselkurs 1 CHF = 0,92 EUR. 30(CHF) Schweizer Franken(CHF) Zu Euro(EUR) Währungskurse Heute - Forex Wechselkurs. Währungsrechner - Umrechnung: 30 CHF wieviel EUR? Heute aktueller Schweizer Franken und Euro wechselkurs 30 CHF / EUR heute realtime.

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Ecb is already talking about a strong Eur! Deflation in Europe, as we said!!!!!!!!!!!!! Ecb will have big problems with Inflation! Reply 0 2.

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Reply 1 2. I see a very strong support at 1. Is SNB intervening here? Very hard to tell Reply 1 0. Reply 2 1. Reply 1 1. Reply 0 1.

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Kinda funny prices still rising but they keep saying we have deflation. Europe is being attacked by a virus, a great crisis is coming!

Big problems for the euro currency! Author's response. Show more comments. Show more replies. Add Chart to Comment. Cancel Attach. Confirm Block.

An uncommon cause is exposure to certain toxins such as lead and cobalt. Additionally, infiltrative disorders such as amyloidosis and connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus have similar consequences.

Heart failure may also occur in situations of "high output" termed " high-output heart failure " , where the amount of blood pumped is more than typical and the heart is unable to keep up.

Chronic stable heart failure may easily decompensate. This most commonly results from a concurrent illness such as myocardial infarction a heart attack or pneumonia , abnormal heart rhythms , uncontrolled hypertension , or a person's failure to maintain a fluid restriction, diet, or medication.

A number of medications may cause or worsen the disease. This includes NSAIDS, COX-2 inhibitors , a number of anesthetic agents such as ketamine , thiazolidinediones, some cancer medications , several antiarrhythmic medications , pregabalin , alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists , minoxidil , itraconazole , cilostazol , anagrelide , stimulants e.

By inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins , NSAIDs may exacerbate heart failure through several mechanisms including promotion of fluid retention, increasing blood pressure , and decreasing a person's response to diuretic medications.

Certain alternative medicines carry a risk of exacerbating existing heart failure, and are not recommended. Heart failure is caused by any condition which reduces the efficiency of the heart muscle, through damage or overloading.

Over time these increases in workload, which are mediated by long-term activation of neurohormonal systems such as the renin—angiotensin system , leads to fibrosis , dilation, and structural changes in the shape of the left ventricle from elliptical to spherical.

The heart of a person with heart failure may have a reduced force of contraction due to overloading of the ventricle. In a normal heart, increased filling of the ventricle results in increased contraction force by the Frank—Starling law of the heart , and thus a rise in cardiac output.

In heart failure, this mechanism fails, as the ventricle is loaded with blood to the point where heart muscle contraction becomes less efficient.

This is due to reduced ability to cross-link actin and myosin filaments in over-stretched heart muscle. No system of diagnostic criteria has been agreed on as the gold standard for heart failure.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommends measuring brain natriuretic peptide BNP followed by an ultrasound of the heart if positive.

One historical method of categorizing heart failure is by the side of the heart involved left heart failure versus right heart failure. Right heart failure was thought to compromise blood flow to the lungs compared to left heart failure compromising blood flow to the aorta and consequently to the brain and the remainder of the body's systemic circulation.

However, mixed presentations are common and left heart failure is a common cause of right heart failure. More accurate classification of heart failure type is made by measuring ejection fraction , or the proportion of blood pumped out of the heart during a single contraction.

Synonyms no longer recommended are "heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction" and "systolic heart failure".

Synonyms no longer recommended include "diastolic heart failure" and "heart failure with normal ejection fraction.

Heart failure may also be classified as acute or chronic. Chronic heart failure is a long-term condition, usually kept stable by the treatment of symptoms.

Acute decompensated heart failure is a worsening of chronic heart failure symptoms which can result in acute respiratory distress. There are several terms which are closely related to heart failure and may be the cause of heart failure, but should not be confused with it.

Cardiac arrest and asystole refer to situations in which there is no cardiac output at all. Without urgent treatment, these result in sudden death.

Myocardial infarction "Heart attack" refers to heart muscle damage due to insufficient blood supply, usually as a result of a blocked coronary artery.

Cardiomyopathy refers specifically to problems within the heart muscle, and these problems can result in heart failure. Ischemic cardiomyopathy implies that the cause of muscle damage is coronary artery disease.

Dilated cardiomyopathy implies that the muscle damage has resulted in enlargement of the heart. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy involves enlargement and thickening of the heart muscle.

Echocardiography is commonly used to support a clinical diagnosis of heart failure. This modality uses ultrasound to determine the stroke volume SV, the amount of blood in the heart that exits the ventricles with each beat , the end-diastolic volume EDV, the total amount of blood at the end of diastole , and the SV in proportion to the EDV, a value known as the ejection fraction EF.

In pediatrics, the shortening fraction is the preferred measure of systolic function. Echocardiography can also identify valvular heart disease and assess the state of the pericardium the connective tissue sac surrounding the heart.

Echocardiography may also aid in deciding what treatments will help the person, such as medication, insertion of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Echocardiography can also help determine if acute myocardial ischemia is the precipitating cause, and may manifest as regional wall motion abnormalities on echo.

Ultrasound showing severe systolic heart failure [40]. Ultrasound of the lungs showing edema due to severe systolic heart failure [40].

Chest X-rays are frequently used to aid in the diagnosis of CHF. In a person who is compensated, this may show cardiomegaly visible enlargement of the heart , quantified as the cardiothoracic ratio proportion of the heart size to the chest.

In left ventricular failure, there may be evidence of vascular redistribution "upper lobe blood diversion" or "cephalization" , Kerley lines , cuffing of the areas around the bronchi , and interstitial edema.

Ultrasound of the lung may also be able to detect Kerley lines. Although these findings are not specific to the diagnosis of heart failure a normal ECG virtually excludes left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

Blood tests routinely performed include electrolytes sodium , potassium , measures of kidney function , liver function tests , thyroid function tests , a complete blood count , and often C-reactive protein if infection is suspected.

An elevated brain natriuretic peptide BNP is a specific test indicative of heart failure. Additionally, BNP can be used to differentiate between causes of dyspnea due to heart failure from other causes of dyspnea.

If myocardial infarction is suspected, various cardiac markers may be used. Hyponatremia low serum sodium concentration is common in heart failure.

Vasopressin levels are usually increased, along with renin, angiotensin II, and catecholamines in order to compensate for reduced circulating volume due to inadequate cardiac output.

This leads to increased fluid and sodium retention in the body; the rate of fluid retention is higher than the rate of sodium retention in the body, this phenomenon causes "hypervolemic hyponatremia" low sodium concentration due to high body fluid retention.

This phenomenon is more common in older women with low body mass. Severe hyponatremia can result in accumulation of fluid in the brain, causing cerebral edema and intracranial hemorrhage.

Angiography is the X-ray imaging of blood vessels which is done by injecting contrast agents into the bloodstream through a thin plastic tube catheter which is placed directly in the blood vessel.

X-ray images are called angiograms. As a result, coronary catheterization may be used to identify possibilities for revascularisation through percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery.

There are various algorithms for the diagnosis of heart failure. For example, the algorithm used by the Framingham Heart Study adds together criteria mainly from physical examination.

In contrast, the more extensive algorithm by the European Society of Cardiology ESC weights the difference between supporting and opposing parameters from the medical history , physical examination , further medical tests as well as response to therapy.

By the Framingham criteria, diagnosis of congestive heart failure heart failure with impaired pumping capability [46] requires the simultaneous presence of at least 2 of the following major criteria or 1 major criterion in conjunction with 2 of the following minor criteria.

Minor criteria are acceptable only if they can not be attributed to another medical condition such as pulmonary hypertension , chronic lung disease , cirrhosis , ascites , or the nephrotic syndrome.

The ESC algorithm weights the following parameters in establishing the diagnosis of heart failure: [23]. Heart failure is commonly stratified by the degree of functional impairment conferred by the severity of the heart failure as reflected in the New York Heart Association NYHA Functional Classification.

People with NYHA class II heart failure have slight, mild limitation with everyday activities; the person is comfortable at rest or with mild exertion.

A person with NYHA class IV heart failure is symptomatic at rest and becomes quite uncomfortable with any physical activity.

This score documents the severity of symptoms and can be used to assess response to treatment. While its use is widespread, the NYHA score is not very reproducible and does not reliably predict the walking distance or exercise tolerance on formal testing.

The ACC staging system is useful since Stage A encompasses "pre-heart failure" — a stage where intervention with treatment can presumably prevent progression to overt symptoms.

Histopathology can diagnose heart failure in autopsies. The presence of siderophages indicates chronic left-sided heart failure, but is not specific for it.

A person's risk of developing heart failure is inversely related to their level of physical activity. Maintaining a healthy weight as well as decreasing sodium , alcohol, and sugar intake may help.

Additionally, avoiding tobacco use has been shown to lower the risk of heart failure. Treatment focuses on improving the symptoms and preventing the progression of the disease.

Reversible causes of the heart failure also need to be addressed e. Treatments include lifestyle and pharmacological modalities, and occasionally various forms of device therapy and rarely cardiac transplantation.

In acute decompensated heart failure ADHF , the immediate goal is to re-establish adequate perfusion and oxygen delivery to end organs.

This entails ensuring that airway, breathing, and circulation are adequate. Immediate treatments usually involve some combination of vasodilators such as nitroglycerin , diuretics such as furosemide , and possibly noninvasive positive pressure ventilation NIPPV.

The goals of treatment for people with chronic heart failure are the prolongation of life, the prevention of acute decompensation and the reduction of symptoms, allowing for greater activity.

Heart failure can result from a variety of conditions. In considering therapeutic options, it is important to first exclude reversible causes, including thyroid disease , anemia , chronic tachycardia , alcohol abuse , hypertension and dysfunction of one or more heart valves.

Treatment of the underlying cause is usually the first approach to treating heart failure. However, in the majority of cases, either no primary cause is found or treatment of the primary cause does not restore normal heart function.

In these cases, behavioral , medical and device treatment strategies exist which can provide a significant improvement in outcomes, including the relief of symptoms, exercise tolerance, and a decrease in the likelihood of hospitalization or death.

Breathlessness rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD and heart failure has been proposed with exercise training as a core component.

Rehabilitation should also include other interventions to address shortness of breath including psychological and education needs of people and needs of carers.

Various measures are often used to assess the progress of people being treated for heart failure. These include fluid balance calculation of fluid intake and excretion , monitoring body weight which in the shorter term reflects fluid shifts.

Behavior modification is a primary consideration in chronic heart failure management program, with dietary guidelines regarding fluid and salt intake.

Exercise should be encouraged and tailored to suit individual capabilities. The inclusion of regular physical conditioning as part of a cardiac rehabilitation program can significantly improve quality of life and reduce the risk of hospital admission for worsening symptoms; however, there is no evidence for a reduction in mortality rates as a result of exercise.

Furthermore, it is not clear whether this evidence can be extended to people with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction HFpEF or to those whose exercise regimen takes place entirely at home.

Home visits and regular monitoring at heart failure clinics reduce the need for hospitalization and improve life expectancy. First-line therapy for people with heart failure due to reduced systolic function should include angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitors ACE-I or angiotensin receptor blockers ARBs if the person develops a long term cough as a side effect of the ACE-I.

In people who are intolerant of ACE-I and ARBs or who have significant kidney dysfunction, the use of combined hydralazine and a long-acting nitrate, such as isosorbide dinitrate , is an effective alternate strategy.

This regimen has been shown to reduce mortality in people with moderate heart failure. Second-line medications for CHF do not confer a mortality benefit.

Digoxin is one such medication. Its narrow therapeutic window, a high degree of toxicity, and the failure of multiple trials to show a mortality benefit have reduced its role in clinical practice.

Diuretics have been a mainstay of treatment for treatment of fluid accumulation, and include diuretics classes such as loop diuretics, thiazide-like diuretics , and potassium-sparing diuretics.

Although widely used, evidence on their efficacy and safety is limited, with the exception of mineralocorticoid antagonists such as spironolactone.

Anemia is an independent factor in mortality in people with chronic heart failure. The treatment of anemia significantly improves quality of life for those with heart failure, often with a reduction in severity of the NYHA classification, and also improves mortality rates.

Vasopressin receptor antagonists can also be used to treat heart failure. Conivaptan is the first medication approved by US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of euvolemic hyponatremia in those with heart failure.

The AICD does not improve symptoms or reduce the incidence of malignant arrhythmias but does reduce mortality from those arrhythmias, often in conjunction with antiarrhythmic medications.

Cardiac contractility modulation CCM is a treatment for people with moderate to severe left ventricular systolic heart failure NYHA class II—IV which enhances both the strength of ventricular contraction and the heart's pumping capacity.

The CCM mechanism is based on stimulation of the cardiac muscle by non-excitatory electrical signals NES , which are delivered by a pacemaker -like device.

CCM is particularly suitable for the treatment of heart failure with normal QRS complex duration ms or less and has been demonstrated to improve the symptoms, quality of life and exercise tolerance.

This is especially problematic in people with left bundle branch block blockage of one of the two primary conducting fiber bundles that originate at the base of the heart and carries depolarizing impulses to the left ventricle.

Using a special pacing algorithm, biventricular cardiac resynchronization therapy CRT can initiate a normal sequence of ventricular depolarization.

People with the most severe heart failure may be candidates for ventricular assist devices VAD. VADs have commonly been used as a bridge to heart transplantation, but have been used more recently as a destination treatment for advanced heart failure.

In select cases, heart transplantation can be considered. While this may resolve the problems associated with heart failure, the person must generally remain on an immunosuppressive regimen to prevent rejection, which has its own significant downsides.

People with heart failure often have significant symptoms, such as shortness of breath and chest pain.

Palliative care should be initiated early in the HF trajectory, and should not be an option of last resort. Without transplantation, heart failure may not be reversible and heart function typically deteriorates with time.

Prognosis in heart failure can be assessed in multiple ways including clinical prediction rules and cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

Clinical prediction rules use a composite of clinical factors such as lab tests and blood pressure to estimate prognosis.

Among several clinical prediction rules for prognosticating acute heart failure, the 'EFFECT rule' slightly outperformed other rules in stratifying people and identifying those at low risk of death during hospitalization or within 30 days.

A very important method for assessing prognosis in people with advanced heart failure is cardiopulmonary exercise testing CPX testing.

CPX testing is usually required prior to heart transplantation as an indicator of prognosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing involves measurement of exhaled oxygen and carbon dioxide during exercise.

The peak oxygen consumption VO2 max is used as an indicator of prognosis. The heart failure survival score is a score calculated using a combination of clinical predictors and the VO2 max from the cardiopulmonary exercise test.

Heart failure is associated with significantly reduced physical and mental health, resulting in a markedly decreased quality of life.

Approximately 18 of every persons will experience an ischemic stroke during the first year after diagnosis of HF.

As the duration of follow-up increases, the stroke rate rises to nearly 50 strokes per cases of HF by 5 years. In heart failure affected about 40 million people globally.

Rates are predicted to increase. In the United States, heart failure affects 5. This high prevalence in these ethnic minority populations has been linked to high incidence of diabetes and hypertension.

In many new immigrants to the U. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital readmissions in the U. People aged 65 and older were readmitted at a rate of In the same year, people under Medicaid were readmitted at a rate of These are the highest readmission rates for both categories.

Notably, heart failure was not among the top ten conditions with the most day readmissions among the privately insured.

In the UK, despite moderate improvements in prevention, heart failure rates have increased due to population growth and ageing.

In tropical countries, the most common cause of HF is valvular heart disease or some type of cardiomyopathy.

As underdeveloped countries have become more affluent, there has also been an increase in the incidence of diabetes , hypertension and obesity , which have in turn raised the incidence of heart failure.

Men have a higher incidence of heart failure, but the overall prevalence rate is similar in both sexes since women survive longer after the onset of heart failure.

Some sources state that people of Asian descent are at a higher risk of heart failure than other ethnic groups. In , non-hypertensive heart failure was one of the ten most expensive conditions seen during inpatient hospitalizations in the U.

There is low-quality evidence that stem cell therapy may help. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Failure of the heart to provide sufficient blood flow.

Main article: Acute decompensated heart failure. Main article: Pathophysiology of heart failure. Play media. Main article: Management of heart failure.

Heart Foundation. Archived from the original PDF on 22 December Retrieved 25 May Elsevier Health Sciences. Retrieved 12 November National Clinical Guideline Centre : 19— National Clinical Guideline Centre : 34— August National Clinical Guideline Centre : 38— National Clinical Guideline Centre : 71—

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